Iron status in diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus can be defined as chronic metabolic disease which results from either relative or complete absence of insulin by the pancreatic beta islet cells. This in-turn may lead to hyperglycemia due to disturbances in the metabolism of glucose. In the human body, iron is con-
sidered to be an effective pro-oxidant and participates in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical. Because of the poor antioxidant defense mechanism of beta cells (low production of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and dismutase), so they are highly prone to iron-induced oxidative stress and iron deposition in it and this will lead to apoptosis, and subsequently insulin deficiency. This iron deposition in beta cells will also lead to insulin resistance by reducing insulin extracting ability of the liver and inhibiting glucose uptake in muscle tissues and fats, this in turn will result in high production of hepatic glucose. Ferritin which is an acute phase reactant protein, that responds to acute stress like trauma, infections, tissue necrosis and surgery, it can produce diabetes mellitus either through inflammation or by increasing iron stores.