Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPS) is a peer reviewed journal covering all medical aspects with focus on pharmaceutical disciplines, published quarterly.</p> <p><strong>AJPS</strong> is the official journal of the College of Pharmacy / Mustansiriyah University, publishing high quality clinically oriented submissions which encompass the various disciplines of pharmaceutical and medical sciences.</p> <p><strong>AJPS</strong> is an open access Journal and that mean any user is allowed immediate free access to the works published in the journal and is permitted to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of [the] articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University en-US Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1815-0993 <div class="aboutSection">AJPS is an open-access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (<a href="" target="xrefwindow"></a>) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> Effect Of Different Variables On The Formulation Of Sodium Alginate Beads <p>This work examined the possibility of encapsulating prednisolone as drug modelling in Na-alginate polymeric beads. Our beads were formulated by ionotropic gelation method using Na-alginate as an anionic natural polysaccharide polymer and Cacl2&nbsp; as a positive charge cross-linker. Eleven formulations were successfully created, and different variations were evaluated, including Na-alginate concentration ( 0.5, 2, 3) w/v %, Cacl2 concentration (1, 3, 5) w/v % stirring speed (100, 300, 400) rpm, the addition of tween-80 (0, 2.5, 5) ml, washing beads with alcohol, &nbsp;change curing time. The beads were assayed by bead size, morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, yield and FTIR. The results showed that the best formula was F2 which can be obtained when using a high concentration of Na-alginate (2<strong> w/v </strong><strong>%)</strong>, Cacl2 (5 <strong>w/v </strong><strong>%)</strong>, the addition of tween-80 (5ml) with the lowest stirring speed (100 rpm) without increase curing time or washing with alcohol. Also, the FTIR result revealed a shifting of the carbonyl group and a low intensity of the hydroxyl group in the spectrogram of F2, indicating potential hydrogen bond interactions that might have resulted in the creation of beads.</p> Surra Lateef Masar Basim Afrah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 Surra Lateef, Masar Basim, Afrah Mohammed 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 117 126 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1007 Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6, and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Chronic Bronchitis Taking Oral Prednisolone in Maysan City Population <p>Background: Clinically, chronic bronchitis is defined as a persistent cough lasting at least three months over the course of two years in a patient where all other causes have been excluded. It is almost invariably described as a feature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) secondary to smoking.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods: </strong>Ninety-five Iraqi patients newly diagnosed with chronic bronchitis were selected to participate in this study. Sixty patients (40 male and 20 female) were enrolled in the current study their ages were ranged from (40-65 years).</p> <p>The patients were divided into two groups, in the first group (responders’ group) the patients were responded to oral prednisolone therapy, and in the other group the patients were not responded to oral prednisolone therapy (non-responders’ group). The assessment of responsiveness to prednisolone will be according to ATS (American Thoracic Society) which define the responders as those with a response of &gt;12% baseline and &gt;200 ml of FEV1. This study is a prospective observational clinical trial was carried out in thoracic consultant clinic at Al- Sader teaching Hospital in Maysan city from March 2022 until March 2023. The prednisolone tablets given in a dose of 30mg /day for 14 days.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study</strong>: The current study was aimed to identify the association of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and neutrophils-lymphocytes ratio with the response of chronic bronchitis patients to oral prednisolone therapy.</p> <p>Results and Conclusions: CRP, IL-6, and NLR consider as good predictive markers (<em>P</em> value&lt;0.001) to determine the responsivity of patients with chronic bronchitis taking oral prednisolone tablets for 14 days.</p> mohammed taha yaseen Dalya Hanna Ali Mohammed Hadi Copyright (c) 2024 mohammed taha yaseen, Dalya Hanna, Ali Mohammed Hadi 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 127 136 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1034 Molecular Modeling, Synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of New Sulfonamide Derivatives as Selective Carbonic Anhydrase XII and IX inhibitors (Research) <p>New benzene sulfonamide compounds 4–10 was modeled at the molecular level to reveal binding opportunities, bond length, angle, and energy scores in the CA II, CAXII, and CAIX active sites. To test their cytotoxic effect against the AMJ-13 Iraqi breast cancer cell line,</p> <p>researchers synthesized the promising compounds from 4-(2-mercapto-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl) benzene sulfonamide 3. Derivatives 4–10 have IC50 values between 0.10 and 6.47 M, indicating potent action against the AMJ-13 cell line. The most effective of these compounds were numbers 4, 7, and 10. The highest binding scores in the active site of CAXII and CAIX were seen for the most active drugs, which may explain their inhibitory profile.</p> Samer Tareq Jasim Monther F. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2024 Samer Tareq Jasim, Monther F. Mahdi 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 137 149 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1055 The incidence of coxiella infection in Iraqi women with early pregnancy loss <p>Query fever is a bacterial disease resulting from Coxiella burnetii (CB) infection in animals. It is well known that small ruminants who get Q fever lose their babies. People think pregnant women may also have lousy gestation results if they get the infection or the infection comes back to life during pregnancy.</p> <p>This study looks at how serologic results of Q fever and early pregnancy loss (EPL) are linked. In Baghdad, including Madinat Al-Imamain Al-Kadhmain Teaching Hospital and Abu Ghraib Hospital, multicenter case-control research was conducted from September to December 2022. A total of 90 women were enrolled in this investigation. Sixty clinically suffered from early pregnancy loss by having a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy. The other 30 women were subjects of comparable age, the week of pregnancy, and the healthy subjects as controls. Using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum samples were screened for antibodies against CB. Three (5%) cases tested positive for CB by ELISA. The study reveals no association between adverse gestation outcomes and positive Q fever serology. Age and abortion history were not significantly correlated with C. burnetii seropositivity, according to the findings of CB cases that tested positive results.</p> Noor Alanbaki Baydaa Hameed Abdullah wassan Abdulkarreem Abbas Mamdouh Mohamed Elbahnasawy Copyright (c) 2024 Noor Alanbaki, Baydaa Hameed Abdullah, wassan Abdulkarreem Abbas, Mamdouh Mohamed Elbahnasawy 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 150 162 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1032 Molecular Docking, Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of 5-methylthiazolidine-4-ones <p>To overcome the widespread emergence of drug resistant pathological agents, newer treatment options are required to be found urgently. This research aims to design new molecules with antimicrobial activities using computational methods and to synthesize these compounds. The designed structures possessing thiazolidine-4-one heterocyclic moiety were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and were found to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial properties. Molecular docking studies were conducted to examine the potential drug-protein interactions. Molecular characterization by spectral techniques (FT-IR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR and <sup>1</sup>H NMR) was carried out to confirm the identity of the synthesized compounds.</p> Sarmad Saadi Hussein Karima Fadhil Ali Fouad Abdulameer Al-Saady Atheer Atiroğlu Copyright (c) 2024 Sarmad Saadi Hussein, Karima Fadhil Ali, Fouad Abdulameer Al-Saady, Atheer Atiroğlu 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 163 177 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1033 In Silico Profiling of Histone Deacetylase 8 Inhibitory Activity: A Computational Analysis of Novel Dipeptide-Based Compounds Cross-Linked with Hydroxamic Acid <p>This study involved the development of innovative compounds consisting of dipeptide cross-links combined with hydroxamic acid. Our objective was to assess their binding affinities with histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) by conducting a docking study, comparing the results with the reference ligand, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA).</p> <p>Docking scores were measured in terms of ΔG (Kcal/mol), and the recorded scores for compounds 2A-D were found to be higher than that of SAHA, with values of 87.36, 80.46, 79.42, and 74.14, respectively. Notably, compound 2A, a dipeptide consisting of L-tryptophyl-L-tyrosine linked to a hydroxamic acid moiety, exhibited the highest docking score of 87.36. This finding suggests that compound 2A may possess the most potent HDAC8 inhibitory activity among the other designed compounds. Furthermore, we utilized the SwissADME server to predict the physicochemical properties and additional ADME parameters for the designed compounds. The analysis revealed that all investigated compounds exhibited a high potential for passive oral absorption and demonstrated no penetration into the blood-brain barrier. Compound 2A, 2B, and 2D exhibited one Lipinski's rule violation each, whereas Compound 2C demonstrated no such violations in all parameters. Additionally, compounds 2A and 2C exhibited potential as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. SAHA did not exhibit inhibition of any of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes used in this study, whereas compounds 2B, 2C and 2D displayed possible inhibitory activities. These compelling findings provide encouraging prospects for the future synthesis of the designed compounds and warrant further evaluation through in vitro and in vivo biological studies.</p> <p> </p> omer mohammed ammash Shakir M. Alwan Ali R.M. albakaa İsmail Alshrif Ibrheam ben Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2024 omer mohammed ammash, Shakir M. Alwan, Ali R.M. albakaa , İsmail Alshrif Ibrheam ben Sulaiman 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 178 189 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1059 the Formulation and Characterization of Curcumin 12-Hydroxystearic Acid in Triacetin Organogel for Topical Administration <p>Background: Curcumin (CUR) and its derivatives have shown a wide variety of biological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects as well as for the treatment of skin diseases. Due to its physico-chemical limitations such as low aqueous solubility and low bioavailability,</p> <p>we developed curcumin organogel as a topical delivery system to overcome those limitations. The12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) is well known as a low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs) capable of gelling an organic liquid phase. Different concentrations of (12-HSA) in triacetin with 50 mg CUR were gelled and applied for various examinations: tabletop rheology, oil binding capacity, pH measurement, spreadability, <em>in vitro</em> drug release, antibacterial activity and oscillatory rheology studies. The results revealed that the organogels transition temperatures from solid to liquid were greater than the normal body temperature, this helped the organogels keep their shape; they had good spreadability,and the organogels pH levels were within the safe range for the skin . <em>In vitro</em> release data showed that 4% 12HSA+5%CUR +TA (4TA) gave us 100% release after 6 hours. The selected 4TA illustrated good viscoelastic properties in the amplitude sweep test and a frequency-independent as seen in the frequency sweep test. CUR has good antibacterial action against <em>Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus pyrogen, Proteus mirabilis, </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em>, which prevail at the site of wound injury as this pointed out that 4TA organogel can be used for topical wound healing.</p> duaa razaq Masar Basim Mohsin Mohamed Lina A. Dahabiyeh Copyright (c) 2024 duaa razaq, Masar Basim Mohsin Mohamed, Lina A. Dahabiyeh 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 190 204 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1011 Effects Of Topical Petroleum Ether and Ethyl Acetate Fractions from Grape Seed Extract on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis Like Skin Inflammation in Mice <p><strong>Background</strong>: Grape seed is a natural herb with many suggested pharmacological effects related to many biologically active compounds in its extract and fractions. Grape seed pharmacological effect is investigated in mice psoriasis like model.</p> <p>Methods: A thirty male albino mice, six weeks’ age used in this research and were divided into five groups. Group I apparently healthy. Group II induction group, imiquimod 5% cream once daily used at the back skin of the animal for five days. Group III, IV and V treatments groups. Group III clobetasol ointment 0.05%, group IV Grape seed extract and group V Grape seed petroleum ether fraction for five days. Results: A high significant increase was found between the apparently healthy and imiquimod induced group for all of the investigated parameters except munro abscess was significant increase. For the grape seed extract group, it was found A significant difference in immunohistochemistry score of IL17, also significant decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with high significant decrease of other immunohistopathology measurement like parakeratosis. Conclusion: Grape seed extract may have a role in imiquimod-induced psoriasis like skin inflammation in mice treatment which make it a future candidate therapy for psoriasis.</p> Mohammed Fareed Ayah F. Al-Qrimli Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Fareed, Ayah F. Al-Qrimli 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 205 216 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1062 Evaluating Serum Calprotectin and Serum Oncostatin M Levels as Diagnostic Markers in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Iraqi Patients. Research <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Introduction</strong>: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), presents as chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Timely diagnosis and effective monitoring are crucial for better outcomes. This study aims to explore serum calprotectin and oncostatin M as potential biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring CD and UC. Calprotectin, released during inflammation, and oncostatin M, an immune-response cytokine, have shown promise, but their precise role in IBD remains unclear.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methodology</strong>: Using a cross-sectional observational design, the study included 93 IBD patients on biological treatment (50 CD, 43 UC) at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected via interviews, and blood samples were analyzed using specific ELISA kits for calprotectin and oncostatin M levels.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results</strong>: The results demonstrated significantly elevated serum levels of both biomarkers in IBD patients, increasing with disease activity. Significant distinctions were observed among different disease statuses in UC and CD patients.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These findings suggest that serum calprotectin and oncostatin M have potential as practical and non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring IBD. However, further research is required to validate their clinical utility and optimize IBD management.</p> Yahya G. Karwi Inam S. Arif Shaymaa A. Abdulameer Copyright (c) 2024 Yahya G. Karwi, Inam S. Arif, Shaymaa A. Abdulameer 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 217 227 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1067 Analysis of Favipiravir Adverse Drug Reactions during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Study Based on Iraqi Pharmacovigilance Center Database <p>The “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)” was the reason behind the recent pandemic “COVID-19” that started from Wuhan, china, and rapidly spread to many regions of the world. Research in Drug repurposing processes to treat this novel coronavirus involved many medications,</p> <p>one of the most discussed is Favipiravir. The objective of the current work was aimed towards Examining the cause, severity, preventability, predictability, and outcome of favipiravir-associated adverse events that had been reported in Iraq. In terms of adverse drug responses, "Gastrointestinal disorders" accounted for the majority (57.4%), followed by "Cardiac disorders" (35.2%), and "Investigations" (abnormal lab test results) (13%). The causality of these reactions Is majorly “Possible” (62%). Severity level 1 (40.9%) and 2 (41.8%). Ninety-nine percent of the ADRs are expected. The majority of the ADRs are non-Preventable (76.3%). The main outcome is Recovered / Resolved (44.5%). About (50%) of the ADRs were serious.</p> Yasir Ezalden Noori Alkashab Inam S. Arif Manal M. Younus Mohammed M. Mohammed Abdullah M. Alrawi Salim Hamadi Copyright (c) 2024 Yasir Ezalden Noori Alkashab, Inam S. Arif, Manal M. Younus, Mohammed M. Mohammed, Abdullah M. Alrawi, Salim Hamadi 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 24 2 228 236 10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1069