Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences <p>Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPS) is a peer reviewed journal covering all medical aspects with focus on pharmaceutical disciplines, published quarterly.</p> <p><strong>AJPS</strong> is the official journal of the College of Pharmacy / Mustansiriyah University, publishing high quality clinically oriented submissions which encompass the various disciplines of pharmaceutical and medical sciences.</p> <p><strong>AJPS</strong> is an open access Journal and that mean any user is allowed immediate free access to the works published in the journal and is permitted to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of [the] articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> en-US <div class="aboutSection">AJPS is an open-access journal that all contents are free of charge. Articles of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (<a href="" target="xrefwindow"></a>) that licensees are unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation). The journal allows the author(s) to retain the copyright of their published article.</div> <div>Creative Commons-Attribution (BY) <a href=""><img src="" /></a></div> [email protected] (Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohammed Al-Zubaidi) [email protected] (Senior Programmer . Dianah A. Sadeq) Thu, 08 Feb 2024 08:30:54 +0000 OJS 60 Comparative Benefit of Evening Primrose Oil and Soybean Oil on Treatment Satisfaction and Quality of Life among Postmenopausal Women <p><strong>Background</strong>: Medicinal herbs as alternative therapies, commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms, and some studies have shown that they can be useful in treating menopausal syndrome, which have been linked to worse self-rated health, and decreased work productivity.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study</strong>: This study compared the effectiveness of EPO and Soybean Oil herbal supplement in a sample of Iraqi postmenopausal women on treatment satisfaction and their quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods</strong>: This prospective study conducted on 20 post-menopausal women who received 500 mg EPO compared to other 20 received 233 mg soybean oil extract, as a capsule twice a day for 8 weeks. The subjective and clinical assessments of Menopause Symptom Treatment Satisfaction, and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life. Data was collected by the researcher via face-to-face interviews with women at baseline and after 2 months of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In this study, Menopause Symptoms Treatment Satisfaction score was not significant within each group post treatment (P&gt;0.05). While after 2 months of treatment, EPO significantly improved the quality of life by decreasing all MEN-QoL domains more than soybean oil, except for the sexual domain (P&lt;0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study revealed that both EPO and soya bean oil supplements had the beneficial effect in improving the postmenopausal quality of life with less treatment satisfaction.</p> raghad mohammed, Manal Khalid Abdulridha, Bushrah Abd Al-Jbori Copyright (c) 2024 raghad mohammed, Manal Khalid Abdulridha, Bushrah Abd Al-Jbori Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Prothrombin Time,International Normalized Ratio, and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time in Hepatitis B Virus Patients, Sudan2020 -2021 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatitis B virus is a growing problem worldwide leading to increasing incidences of life-threatening complications of which liver diseases play a major part of it.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> To evaluate these effects in Sudanese patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Wad Medani teaching hospital from October 2020 to February 2021 for assessing the effect of the disease on the coagulation profile. Patients were randomly selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. 2.5ml of blood samples were collected from each patient in tri-sodium citrate containers, and then semi-automated Coatron M4 was used to estimate Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) after calibrated and controlled setting according to the manufacturer’s instructions. SPSS (version 25) was used to analysed data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 100 hepatitis B virus patients were included in the study, with males representing (79%) and females were (21%), their age were between 18 to 60 years. The study results showed PT prolonged in (98%) of the study population and only (2%) were normal. regarding the APTT (99%) of them had prolonged results (more than the upper normal), and the remaining (1%) was normal. Also, the study results showed there were slight statistically insignificant differences in coagulation profile in hepatitis B virus patients according to gender, age group, family history, and duration of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> hepatitis B infection had a great effect on Coagulation profiles. Therefore, it is recommended on the basis of these results to request PT, INR, and APTT as routine works up for hepatitis B virus patients.</p> GadAllah Modawe, Esra Awad Mohamed , Ozaz Yagoup Mohamed, AbdelrahmanEldaw Mohammed, Hiba Awadelkareem Osman Fadl, Abdelrahman Hamza Abdelmoneim Copyright (c) 2024 GadAllah Modawe, Esra Awad Mohamed , Ozaz Yagoup Mohamed, AbdelrahmanEldaw Mohammed, Hiba Awadelkareem Osman Fadl, Abdelrahman Hamza Abdelmoneim Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular modelling, Synthesis and Antiproliferative Evaluation of New Phenyldiazenyl)-Pyrazol Schiff Base Derivatives <p>Lung cancer is the most prevalent worldwide. In addition, it is also the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with around 1.8 million new cases annually. With a 5-year survival rate of fewer than 20%.</p> <p>Cytotoxic medicines are commonly employed in cancer treatment. Although the medicine improves patients' quality of life, several disadvantages diminish its efficacy. This necessitates developing new effective strategies that target tumors with minimal adverse effects. This research aims to overcome these issues by synthesizing a new series of phenyldiazenyl)-pyrazol schiff base derivatives by utilizing the molecular docking (GOLD) suite program and the pharmacokinetic properties determination by utilizing (Swiss) ADME suite; The most appropriate-fitting compounds were subsequently produced and confirmed using spectrum analysis (FTIR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, and <sup>13 </sup>CNMR). MTT <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em> assay were performed to assess of antiproliferative activities against A549 lung cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative study showed that compound 3a had an inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub> of 17.37 µM) on lung cancer cells (A549), which was significantly higher inhibitory activity than Erlotinib (IC<sub>50</sub> = 25.06 µM). While compound 3b had an inhibitory activity comparable to the reference drug's, The IC<sub>50</sub> values for compounds 3c, 3d, and 3e were 47.48, 45.56, and 33.05 µM, respectively</p> duha emad taha, Monther F. Mahdi, Ayad M. R. Raauf Copyright (c) 2024 duha emad taha, Monther F. Mahdi, Ayad M. R. Raauf Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GC/MS Analysis and Isolation of Stigmasterol from Viola Odorata Cultivated in Iraq <p>Viola odorata is a viola family flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. This is a small, hardy, herbaceous, perennial plant. It is also known as sweet violet and English violet. Numerous pharmacological properties of this flowering plant include anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antipyretic properties.</p> <p>Previous literature review of different parts of Viola odorata resulted in detection of different chemical constituents such as flavonoids (Quercetin, kaempferol), glycosides (Rutin) and terpenoids (stigma sterol). Stigmasterol was detected using TLC and GC-MS in this study. It was isolated from Viola odorata using preparative layer chromatography. HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the isolated Stigmasterol</p> Zaineb Ali, Ibrahim Saleh Abbas, Widad MK Alani, Farah Al-Mamoori Copyright (c) 2024 Zaineb Ali Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Molecular Docking, Characterization, and Preliminary Evaluation of Some New 1, 3-Diazetidin-2-One Derivatives as Anticancer Agents <p>A series of novel 1,3-diazetidin-2-one derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated preliminary (<em>In Vitro</em>) for their cytotoxic activity against the lung (A549) cancer cell line. GOLD software (version 2021.2.0) was used to conduct a molecular docking study;</p> <p>the tested derivatives demonstrated significant anticancer activity compared to the reference drug (erlotinib). PLP-fitness values for the final compounds are 79.81, 80.80, and 81.57, respectively, whereas the reference ligand, erlotinib, had a value of 76.20. The synthesized compounds were identified and characterized using physicochemical parameters (melting points and R<sub>f</sub> values), FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectroscopy. According to the IC50 values for the synthesized derivatives, compounds N4a and N4b exhibit outstanding anti-proliferative activity with IC50 value of (7.51, 7.68) µM against A549 cell line, compared to erlotinib, which has an IC50 value of (11.5) µM.</p> <p> </p> farah haidar, Monther Faisal Mahdi, Ayad Kareem Khan Copyright (c) 2024 farah haidar, Monther Faisal Mahdi, Ayad Kareem Khan Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 In Silico Prediction of Binding Affinities of Hybrid Molecules of Benzothiazole cross-linked with Hydroxamic acid by certain linkers <p>New hybrid molecules of Benzothiazole cross-linked with hydroxamic acid through an amino acid or aminoalkanoic acid are suggested. All the synthesized hybrid molecules (<strong>2A-E</strong>) were subjected to molecular docking to evaluate their binding affinities with histone deacetylase enzyme (HDAC8, PDB ID: 1T69) and recorded lower ΔG (<strong>-8.117</strong>, <strong>-6.322</strong>, <strong>-8.16</strong>, <strong>-7.939</strong>, <strong>- 9.46</strong>, respectively)</p> <p>than Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), as the reference ligand, which recorded a much less value of <strong>-5.375</strong>, using the Maestro software (Schrödinger, version 2022-1). Moreover, compound <strong>2E, </strong>which is Benzothiazole-p-amino benzoic acid-hydroxamate has recorded the lowest binding score (-9.460). This may indicate that this compound is the most active hybrid molecule. There were no violations from Lipinski’s rule and all the synthesized hybrid molecules comply with all parameters. SwissADME server was employed for the <em>in silico</em> molecular docking for prediction of the physicochemical and ADME properties of the investigated compounds<strong>.</strong> All hybrid molecules showed low possible passive oral absorption and no penetration into BBB. The hybrid molecules <strong>2B </strong>and <strong>2D</strong> may be considered as P-gp substrates. SAHA does not inhibit any of the CYP enzymes used in this study, while, the hybrid molecules <strong>2B, 2D</strong> and <strong>2E</strong> have shown possible inhibitory activities.</p> yazen alqaysi, Shakir M. Alwan, Ashour H. Dawood Copyright (c) 2024 yazen alqaysi, Shakir M. Alwan, Ashour H. Dawood Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Quality of Life in a Sample of Short Stature Iraqi Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency <p><strong>Background:</strong> Short stature (SS) is defined as a height of 2.0 or more standard deviations (SD) below the population-specific mean height for age and gender. 2.5% of children have short stature, and it is one of the most frequent causes for children to see a growth specialist during their childhood.</p> <p>It is challenging to generalize about the effect of short stature on psycho-social adaption given the data currently available. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was generally shown to be lower in clinically identified short stature children than in population-based normal-sized reference groups. <br /><strong>Aim:</strong> Examine the behavioral pattern and mental health of SS and its psychological influence on QoL of children/adolescence. In addition, compare the behavioral response and QoL between growth hormone deficiency GHD and control groups. <br /><strong>Methods:</strong> It is a cross sectional study, included 80 participants (60 with GHD and 20 with normal height as control group) between 4 and 18 years old. The parents of the participants were given a parent-reported version of the written Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth QoLISSY questionnaire in Arabic in order to examine the association with the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. <br /><strong>Results: </strong>51.25% female and 48.75% male included in this study, the mean age at assessment was 12.1 ± 2.7, and 11.8 ± 2.6 of the GHD and control group, respectively. There was significant difference in QoLISSY total score between GHD and control groups. The association between socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was significantly different. <br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The QoL of Iraqi children with GHD showed lower scores in all domains of QoLISSY compared to normal children.</p> saba rabea, Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed, Dawood S. abdoun, Iman Bashet Copyright (c) 2024 saba rabea Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Dialysis Adequacy, Physical and Emotional Symptoms with Erythropoietin-stimulating agent Responsiveness in Iraqi Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis <p><strong>Background: </strong>Erythropoietin (EPO)-deficient anemia occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the standard treatment for CKD anemia, but patient responses vary.</p> <p>Hemodialysis patients are often anemic due to hypo erythropoiesis and their chronic inflammatory state. Inadequate dialysis is considered one of the factors that are linked to ESA hypo responsiveness. Dialysis patients may experience many symptoms that lower their quality of life. End stage renal disease (ESRD) symptoms are assessed using Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI). <br /><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study was designed to measure the association between physical, and emotional symptoms and ESA responsiveness. Also, to determine how dialysis adequacy affects response level.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The current study included 150 CKD anemic patients in a multicenter dialysis units. patients were examined for the response to Epoetin alfa (Eprex) after 12 weeks in this cross-sectional study. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected. The erythropoietin resistance index (ERI) evaluated the effect of erythropoietin dosage on hemoglobin levels. Dialysis adequacy (Kt/V) measured the efficacy of dialysis. The severity of symptoms was evaluated using the 30-question Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI). <br /><strong>Results: </strong>150 patients in all were enrolled, with a mean age of 51.6 ± 14.9 for the male patients. There was a significant difference in kt/v among study groups, mainly between hypo response and resistance groups (P-value &lt; 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the DSI mean (P = 0.4). kt/v was positively correlated with the duration of dialysis and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (R = 0.27, P-value &lt; 0.001), (R = 0.19, P-value = 0.01). additionally, The DSI was strongly connected with the age of the patients (R = 0.18, P-value = 0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>One of the main causes of Eprex resistance in this study was insufficient dialysis. Patients who received longer hemodialysis sessions exhibited higher hemodialysis sufficiency. However, there was no significant association between DSI and degree of response across research groups, and older hemodialysis patients experienced higher dialysis-related symptoms.</p> Salar Ahmed, Mohammed Mahmood, Arif Sami, Salim Hamadi Copyright (c) 2024 Salar Ahmed, Mohammed Mahmood, Arif Sami Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Pyridoxine Supplement on Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetic Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> The physiologically active form of vitamin B6 is pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), which functions as a coenzyme in 150 enzymatic processes such amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and is essential for the production and/or breakdown of neurotransmitters.</p> <p>. It also acts as an antioxidant by quenching Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and counteracting the formation of Advanced Glycation End-Product (AGEs). PLP is recycled by mammals from B6 vitamins found in diet and has been linked to a number of clinically significant disorders. This study aim was to evaluate the impact of pyridoxine supplementation on oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This prospective controlled randomized open-labeled study of newly diagnosed T2DM patients. The study was conducted from November 2022 to February 2023 at the Mesan Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology under the supervision of a specialist endocrinologist. The total number of participants whose data were collected in this study was one hundred and eight participants, eighty-eight patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in the study, and twenty of the participants were healthy subjects. The patients were allocated into three groups: Group 1: Control group, 20 T2DM patients were treated with non-pharmacological therapy (lifestyle modification) for one month, Group 2: 34 T2DM patients treated with metformin 500 mg/day in addition to non-pharmacological therapy (lifestyle modification) for one month, Group 3: 34 T2DM patients treated with metformin 500 mg/day plus vitamin B6 300 mg/day in addition to non-pharmacological therapy (lifestyle modification) for one month, in addition to Healthy subjects: 20 subjects were taken to compare the study parameters between type 2 diabetic patients and healthy persons at baseline. Measurement of Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) blood level (PLP), body mass index (BMI) and Serum malondialdehyde level (MDA) was done in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the study showed that the use of pyridoxine supplementation plus metformin decreased the level of MDA. There was significant decrease in (MDA) level (P&lt;0.01) pretreatment when compared to after treatment (3.85 μmole/L vs 1.66 μmole/L) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Restoration of vitamin B6 level can leads to a decreased blood level of MDA in diabetic patients.</p> Moatamad Hanoon Dawood , Manal Khalid Abdulridha, Hayder Saadoon Qasim Copyright (c) 2024 Moatamad Hanoon Dawood Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Aescin in Psoriatic-Induced Animal Model: Immunohistochemical and Pathological Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Aescin is a mixture of the triterpene saponins extracted from the seeds of the horse chestnut tree Aesculus hippocastanum. Aescin has a venotonic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-edematous characteristics that are mostly connected to the agent molecular mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study aim to investigate the potential effects of Aescin on psoriasis induced by Imiquimod in male rats, ncluding its effect on the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha, Ki-67 and the histopathologic features of the psoriatic skin.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Thirty-six albino male rats were divided into six groups each group containing 6 animals, psoriasis was induced by Imiquimod to five of the groups, while for the last group vasaline was applied and the group served as a control group. The animals were then treated with topical Aescin, topical clobetasol, combination of topical Aescin and clobetasol and oral Aescin, finally all animals were sacrificed and the dorsal back skin was taken to perform histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>regarding the level of Ki-67, Strong expression of Ki-67 was seen in the group who received Imiquimod only, where the scoring of Ki-67 was notably lowered among the other groups. However, the lowest expression was noticed in the group that were treated with the combination of topical Aescin and clobetasol. While the number of TNF-α positive cells and the intensity of immunostaining were higher in the induction group who received Imiquimod only and the lowest among the group who received the combination of topical Aescin and Clobetasol. Lastly the histopathologic analysis shows that the histopathologic features of psoriasis was markedly affected by the anti-inflammatory effect of Aescin and clobetasol, which was noticed through inhibition of proinflammatory markers, and the decrease in capillary permeability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Topical Aescin alone or in combination with clobetasol reduced Ki-67 expression successfully; furthermore, the combination of topical Aescin and Clobetasol decreased TNF- score and had the strongest anti-inflammatory activity more than the other groups. Lastly Aescin was able to alter the histopathologic features of the psoriatic skin through its anti-inflammatory, venotonic and anti-edematous activity.</p> Rafal wadhah, Basma Talib , Ghaith ali, Wamidh H Talib Copyright (c) 2024 Rafal wadhah, Basma Talib , Ghaith ali Sun, 14 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000