Effect Of Different Variables On The Formulation Of Sodium Alginate Beads


  • Surra Lateef Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Masar Basim Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Afrah Mohammed Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq




Ionotropic gelation method , Sodium alginate , prednisolone, calcium chloride, beads


This work examined the possibility of encapsulating prednisolone as drug modelling in Na-alginate polymeric beads. Our beads were formulated by ionotropic gelation method using Na-alginate as an anionic natural polysaccharide polymer and Cacl2  as a positive charge cross-linker. Eleven formulations were successfully created, and different variations were evaluated, including Na-alginate concentration ( 0.5, 2, 3) w/v %, Cacl2 concentration (1, 3, 5) w/v % stirring speed (100, 300, 400) rpm, the addition of tween-80 (0, 2.5, 5) ml, washing beads with alcohol,  change curing time. The beads were assayed by bead size, morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, yield and FTIR. The results showed that the best formula was F2 which can be obtained when using a high concentration of Na-alginate (2 w/v %), Cacl2 (5 w/v %), the addition of tween-80 (5ml) with the lowest stirring speed (100 rpm) without increase curing time or washing with alcohol. Also, the FTIR result revealed a shifting of the carbonyl group and a low intensity of the hydroxyl group in the spectrogram of F2, indicating potential hydrogen bond interactions that might have resulted in the creation of beads.


- Kalbhare SB, Bhandwalkar MJ, Pawar RK, Sagre AR. Sodium Alginate cross-linked Polymeric Microbeads for oral Sustained drug delivery in Hypertension: Formulation and

Evaluation. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2020;10(3):153-7.

- Abdulkadar M. Formaldehyde Cross Linked Hydrogel Beads a New Matrix for Sustained Release of Dexibuprofen: Periyar College of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Girls, Tiruchirappalli; 2012.

- Albadri AA, Abdulbaqi MR, Almajidi YQ. Recent Trends in Chronopharmaceutics, Pulsatile Drug Delivery System. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;19(4):41-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v19i4.631

- Grøndahl L, Lawrie G, Anitha A, Shejwalkar A. Applications of alginate biopolymer in drug delivery. Biointegration of medical implant materials: Elsevier; 2020. p. 375-403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102680-9.00014-7

- Russo P, Morello S, Pinto A, Del Gaudio P, Auriemma G, Aquino RP. Zinc and calcium cations combination in the production of floating alginate beads as prednisolone delivery systems. Molecules. 2020;25(5):1140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051140

- Sun X, Liu C, Omer A, Yang L-Y, Ouyang X-k. Dual-layered pH-sensitive alginate/chitosan/kappa-carrageenan microbeads for colon-targeted release of 5-fluorouracil. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2019;132:487-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.225

- ARMUTCU C, PİŞKİN S. Evaluation of controlled hydroxychloroquine releasing performance from calcium-alginate beads. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering. 2021;8(3):255-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000236

- Raut SY, Gahane A, Joshi MB, Kalthur G, Mutalik S. Nanocomposite clay-polymer microbeads for oral controlled drug delivery: Development and, in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019;51:234-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2019.03.001

- Günter EA, Popeyko OV. Calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins as promising systems for colon-targeted drug delivery. Carbohydrate polymers. 2016;147:490-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.026

- Behera S, Mohanty R, Ray R. Ethanol fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia) flowers using free and immobilized bacteria Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92. Biologia. 2010;65(3):416-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-010-0041-7

- Auriemma G, Russo P, Del Gaudio P, García-González CA, Landín M, Aquino RP. Technologies and formulation design of polysaccharide-based hydrogels for drug delivery. Molecules. 2020;25(14):3156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143156

- Patel N, Lalwani D, Gollmer S, Injeti E, Sari Y, Nesamony J. Development and evaluation of a calcium alginate based oral ceftriaxone sodium formulation. Progress in biomaterials. 2016;5:117-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40204-016-0051-9

- Abdalla KF, Kamoun EA, El Maghraby GM. Optimization of the entrapment efficiency and release of ambroxol hydrochloride alginate beads. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2015;5(4):013-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2015.50403

- Asnani GP, Bahekar J, Kokare CR. Development of novel pH–responsive dual crosslinked hydrogel beads based on Portulaca oleracea polysaccharide-alginate-borax for colon specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2018;48:200-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2018.09.023

- Vecino X, Devesa-Rey R, Cruz J, Moldes A. Study of the physical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads containing vineyard pruning waste for dye removal. Carbohydrate polymers. 2015;115:129-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.088

- Ansari M, Sadarani B, Majumdar A. Colon targeted beads loaded with pterostilbene: Formulation, optimization, characterization and in vivo evaluation. Saudi pharmaceutical journal. 2019;27(1):71-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.07.021

- Kurra P, Narra K, Puttugunta SB, Kilaru NB, Mandava BR. Development and optimization of sustained release mucoadhesive composite beads for colon targeting. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2019;139:320-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.190

- Dakhil IA, Mohamed MBM, Abbas AK, Mansour SM. Formulation and Evaluation of Trifluoperazine HCl as rectal suppositories by using different types of surfactants in Cocoa butter. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(10):4934-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00856.4

- Rajmohan D, Bellmer D. Characterization of Spirulina-alginate beads formed using ionic gelation. International journal of food science. 2019;2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7101279

- Hashem FM, Shaker DS, Nasr M, Ragaey R. In Vitro and in vivo evaluation of combined time and pH-dependent oral colonic targeted prednisolone microspheres. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;3(3):420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/BJPR/2014/3195

- Kaur N, Singh B, Sharma S. Hydrogels for potential food application: Effect of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on physical and morphological properties. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2018;7(7):142-8.

- 22. Sarangi M, Rao MB, Parcha V, Upadhyay A. Development and Characterization of Colon-targeting 5-Fluorouracil Multiparticulate Beads. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;82(3):435-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.666

- Lee BB, Ravindra P, Chan ES. Size and shape of calcium alginate beads produced by extrusion dripping. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 2013;36(10):1627-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201300230

- Li J, He J, Huang Y, Li D, Chen X. Improving surface and mechanical properties of alginate films by using ethanol as a co-solvent during external gelation. Carbohydrate polymers. 2015;123:208-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.01.040

- Barzegar-Jalali M, Hanaee J, Omidi Y, Ghanbarzadeh S, Ziaee S, Bairami-Atashgah R, et al. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release calcium alginate beads and matrix tablets of acetazolamide. Drug research. 2013;63(02):60-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1331755

- Bušić A, Belščak-Cvitanović A, Cebin AV, Karlović S, Kovač V, Špoljarić I, et al. Structuring new alginate network aimed for delivery of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L.) polyphenols using ionic gelation and new filler materials. Food research international. 2018;111:244-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.05.034

- Verma A, Tiwari A, Panda PK, Saraf S, Jain A, Jain SK. Locust bean gum in drug delivery application. Natural polysaccharides in drug delivery and biomedical applications: Elsevier; 2019. p. 203-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-817055-7.00008-X

- Mar JM, da Silva LS, Rabello MdS, Biondo MM, Kinupp VF, Campelo PH, et al. Development of alginate/inulin carrier systems containing non-conventional Amazonian berry extracts. Food Research International. 2021;139:109838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109838

- Pongjanyakul T, Rongthong T. Enhanced entrapment efficiency and modulated drug release of alginate beads loaded with drug–clay intercalated complexes as microreservoirs. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010;81(2):409-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.02.038

- Kaddoori ZS, Mohamed MBM, Numan NA. Organogel investigations as a floating oral system with depot property. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;20(4):132-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v20i4.783

- Kaddoori ZS, Mohamed MBM, Kadhum WR, Numan NA. To Consider The Organogel Of Span 40 And Span 60 In Sesame Oil As A New Member In The Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery Systems. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy. 2020;11(5):850-61.




How to Cite

Lateef, S., Basim, M. ., & Mohammed, A. . (2024). Effect Of Different Variables On The Formulation Of Sodium Alginate Beads. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 24(2), 117–126. https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v24i2.1007