Evaluate of newborn with jaundice at central teaching hospital of pediatrics in Baghdad : descriptive study


  • Sa`ad H. Mohammed cenal teaching hospital of pediatrics
  • Manaf Muwafak Ahmed Al-Mahmodyiah general hospital
  • Ruaa Allawy Hasan collage of pharmacy, Al-Mustansiriyah university




Hyperbilirubinemia, Phototherapy, Exchange transfusion, Neonatal jaundice


Background: - Neonatal jaundice is a frequent condition at newborns, particularly in the first few days after delivery, and it has to be treated well to prevent complications that might have significant, long-lasting complications.

Objective: - To assess the outcome of newborn jaundice at the central teaching Hospital of pediatrics in Baghdad using different modality of treatments.

Patients and Methods: - A retrospective study is done depending on the medical data of infants have jaundice who were admitted to the neonate units of the central teaching hospital within the period of a year, from May 1st 2020 to May 1st 2021. Blood grouping and total serum bilirubin measurements were taken in each case. Phototherapy, strong phototherapy, and exchange transfusion were utilized to treat the newborn jaundice, depending on its severity.

Results: Total neonates admitted from 1st may2020 to1st may 2021 in neonate unit were 2508 and 855 [34%] have jaundice. the male: female rati0 is [1.6:1], males 516[60.3%], females 339[39.6%]. The Physiol0gical jaundice is the often-frequent cause 285[33.3%] patients. The Prematurity seen in 171[20%] patient and the ABO incompatibility seen in 128[1.3%] and the Rh incompatibility 17[2%] patient, the sepsis found in 16[2%] case and the other causes of hyperbilirubinemia seen in 238[27.8%] patient.  the Phototherapy is the most frequent kind of management used in 513[55%] and intensive phototherapy is applied for 342[40.3%] patients and just 59[7%] of patients treated with exchange transfusion particularly patients with ABO incompatibility 25 [42%] also Rh incompatibility 34 [57.6%]
Good decline in TSB level and not require the exchange transfusion is 812 [95%] of patients. Majority of infants 849 [99.55%] discharge with clinical improvement and only 17 [0.3%] of infant’s patients develops kernicterus and 8 patients is dying [0.1%]

Conclusion: Moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia is still often treated with phototherapy. Intensive phototherapy is beneficial in lowering T.S.B levels, minimizing the need for exchange transfusions, and shortening hospital stays in patients with newborn hyperbilirubinemia.


- Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Geme JW, Schor NF & Behrman RE. Jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn. Nelson Textbook of pediatrics, 2015: 20th edition V1.p. 871-880.

- Dutta P. Neonatal Jaundice. Paediatric Nursing 2nd edition Jaypee, 2009; 97-102.

- Shrestha S, Pertini MA, Shrestha S, Maharjan S. Knowledge about neonatal jaundice among Nepalese mothers. Sri Lanka J Child Heal. 2019 Sep 5;48(3):215-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v48i3.8755

- Bhutani VK, Johnson-Hamerman L. The clinical syndrome of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction. InSeminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2015 Feb 1 [Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 6-13]. WB Saunders. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2014.12.008

- Slusher, T. M., and B. O. Olusanya. Neonatal jaundice in low- and middle-income countries, chapter 13 In: Stevenson DK, Maisels J, Watchko J, editors.Care of the Jaundiced Neonate. (2012): 263-73.

- Ahmed S, Parvin M, Khan AH & Islam MN. Jaundice in the newborn in Bangladesh— a comparison of data 10 years apart. Bang J Child Health. 1994; 18: 46–50.

- Maisels MJ, Kring E. Length of stay, jaundice, and hospital readmission. Pediatrics. 1998 Jun 1;101[6]:995-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.101.6.995

- Narang A, Gathwala G, Kumar P. Neonatal jaundice: an analysis of 551 cases. Indian pediatrics. 1997 May 1; 34:429-32.

- Lk D, ALLEN Jr FH, THOMAS Jr WO. Erythroblastosis fetalis. VII. Treatment with exchange transfusion. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2018 Jan 1;244(2):39-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM195101112440201

- Murki S, Kumar P. Blood exchange transfusion for infants with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. InSemi-nars in perinatology 2011 Jun 1[Vol.35,No.3,pp.175-184].WB Saunders. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2011.02.013

- Maisels MJ, McDonagh AF. Phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008 Feb 28;358 [9]:920-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMct0708376

- Woodgate P, Jardine LA. Neonatal jaundice: phototherapy. BMJ clinical evidence. 2015;2015.

- Hansen TW & Rosenkrantz T. Neonatal jaundice treatment & management. Med Scape. 2016; 1:12.

- American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinem Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant.35 or more weeks of gestation [published correction appearsinPediatrics2004Oct;114 [4]:1138]. Pediatrics. 2004;114[1]: 297–316. doi:10.1542/peds.114.1.297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.114.1.297

- Subedi K, Shrestha RS, Dhakwa JR & Shrestha NJ. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Kanti Children Hospital, Souvenir Kanti Children Hospital, 2009.

- Dantas AV, Farias LJ, de Paula SJ, Moreira RP, da Silva VM, de Oliveira Lopes MV, Guedes NG. Nursing diagnosis of neonatal jaundice: study of clinical indicators. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2018 Mar 1;39: e6-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.12.001

- Siromani SM, Chidugula SK, Lal KM & Lakshmi S. Neonatal Hyper Bilirubinemia in Level II NICU And Its Outcome - A Tertiary Care Centre Experience, Hyderabad, India. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences [IOSR-JDMS]. Volume 16, Issue 11 Ver. IV [Nov. 2017]. PP 12-18

- Thielemans L, Trip-Hoving M, Landier J, Turner C, Prins TJ, Wouda EM, Hanboonkunupakarn B, Po C, Beau C, Mu M, Hannay T. Indirect neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in hospitalized neonates on the Thai-Myanmar border: a review of neonatal medical records from 2009 to 2014. BMC pediatrics. 2018 Dec 1;18[1] :190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1165-0

- Sharma S. Neonatal Hyperbilirub-inemia: Hospital Based Study in Western Region, Nepal. Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2016; 5:75-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/jjis.v5i0.17841

- Singhal PK, Singh M, Paul VK, Deorari AK, Ghorpade MG. Spectrum of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: An analysis of 454 cases. Indian Pediatr. 1992 Mar 1;29[3]:319-25.

- Rasul CH, Hasan MA, Yasmin F. Outcome of neonatal hyperbilirub-inemia in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS. 2010 Apr;17[2]:40-44.

- Al-Momen H.H, Athab M.F and Al-Zubaidi A.S. Extensive Versus Traditional Phototherapy in Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice. THE IRAQI POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL JOU-RNAL. VOL.16, NO,4. 2017

- Abdelazeem KS, Soliman AA, Askar EA. Efficacy of Intensive Phototherapy in Management of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonatal Unit of Assiut University Children Hospital. J Neonatal Biol.2017;6[266]:2167-0897.

- Zaki NH. Respiratory Distress and the Bacteria Causing Infection in the Neonates. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012 Jun 1;11(1):139-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v11i1.248

- Layla AO, Faiza MA, Ramzia AK. Proportion of hepatitis C virus antibodies in icteric patients. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharma-ceutical Sciences. 2004 Jun 1;1(1):35-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v1i1.444




How to Cite

Sa`ad H. Mohammed, Manaf Muwafak Ahmed, & Ruaa Allawy Hasan. (2023). Evaluate of newborn with jaundice at central teaching hospital of pediatrics in Baghdad : descriptive study. Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23(2), 158–167. https://doi.org/10.32947/ajps.v23i2.1017