Effect of using high molecular weight crosslinker on the physical properties of super porous hydrogel composite


  • Safa Mohammed Nser *Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Athmar Dhahir Habeeb Al-Shohani Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Alaa Abuawad Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Assistant professor, Faculty of pharmacy at Applied science private university, Amman, Jordan




Superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC), polyethylene glycol diacrylate 700, high molecular weight crosslinker, polyvinyl alcohol, mechanical strength.


Superporous hydrogel composite is widely utilized and investigated as a gastro retentive drug delivery system. Materials used in Superporous hydrogel formulation have a profound effect on its properties’, N-methylene bisacrylamide is the crosslinker of choice for the preparation of SPH.

The purpose of this study is to determine if using a new high molecular weight crosslinker such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate will affect the physical characteristics of SPH and drug release behavior. For the preparation of super porous hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol, acrylamide, polyethylene glycol diacrylate 700, N, N-Methylene bisacrylamide, sodium bicarbonate, and tween 20 were used. Trifluoperazine HCl was used as a model drug. The buoyancy, porosity, density, drug release, drug content, swelling ratio, and swelling time were studied and compared. All the physical characteristics and medication release profiles were impacted by changing the formulation parameters. The formula with the best physical qualities had 300 µl of acrylamide (40 percent w/v), 20 mg of polyvinyl alcohol, 200 µl of Tween 20 (v/v), 5 µl of polyethylene glycol diacrylate 700, 45 µl ammonium persulfate, 45 µl TEMED and 50 mg of sodium bicarbonate. Around 80% of the drug was released over the course of 12 hours according to zero order kinetics. By modifying the formulation parameters using polyethylene glycol diacrylate, Superporous hydrogel was successfully manufactured and has the best properties to be employed as a gastro retentive drug delivery system.


- Kaddoori ZS, Basim M, Mohamed M. ـ Organogel

investigations as a floating oral system with depot property. Al Mustansiriyah J Pharm Sci. 2020;20(4).

- Mohamed M. ـ Organogel investigations as a floating oral system with depot property. Al Mustansiriyah J Pharm Sci. 2020;20(4).

- Ramu B, S.C.Bose K, Satish Kumar P. Floating drug delivery systems a review. J Chem Pharm Sci. 2011;4(1):39–43.

- Sadiq AAK, Altaii RAJ, Tawfiq FA. Floating Drug Delivery Systems Using Metronidazole as a Model Drug Part I: By Effervescent Method. Al Mustansiriyah J Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2013 Dec 1 [cited 2023 Mar 15];13(2):36–47. Available from: https://ajps.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq/index.php/AJPS/article/view/199

- Jonathan TC, Madan SP, Patrick HD, Musa A. Formulation and evaluation of gastro-retentive floating tablets of griseofulvin. African J Pharm Pharmacol. 2022;16(6):90–102.

- Varshney HM. Research Article A Conceptual Overview on Superporous Hydrogels. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014;25(2):166–73.

- Bagadiya A, Kapadiya M MK. Superporous hydrogel : A promising tool for gastoretentive drug delivery system Available Online through. Int J Pharm Technol. 2011;3(4):1556–71.

- Dhingra GA, Goyal S, Sharma S. Synthesis and Characterization of Site Specific Superporous Hydrogel Hybrids of Loratadine. Int J Pharm Sci Res [Internet]. 2017;8(1):151–64. Available from: www.ijpsr.com

- Yang Z, Peng H, Wang W, Liu T. Crystallization behavior of poly(ε-caprolactone)/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci. 2010;116(5):2658–67.

- Claus J, Brietzke A, Lehnert C, Oschatz S, Grabow N, Kragl U. Swelling characteristics and biocompatibility of ionic liquid based hydrogels for biomedical applications. PLoS One [Internet]. 2020;15(4):1–16. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231421

- Şenol Kubilay , Kadir Selçuk DS. Synthesis and Characterization of P (N-Isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels with Tunable Swelling Behavior Using Different Crosslinkers. Hacettepe J Biol Chem. 2021;49(1):93–106.

- United state pharmacopia. USP Monographs: Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride Tablets [Internet]. USP29-NF24. 2007 [cited 2022 Oct 2]. 2201 p. Available from: http://www.pharmacopeia.cn/v29240/usp29nf24s0_m85300.html

- Jihad HM, Al- Akkam EJ. Formulation and in-vitro Evaluation of Carvedilol Gastroretentive Capsule as (Superporous Hydrogel). Iraqi J Pharm Sci. 2021;30(2):196–207.

- Farag MM, Louis MM, Badawy AA, Nessem DI, Elmalak NSA. Drotaverine Hydrochloride Superporous Hydrogel Hybrid System: a Gastroretentive Approach for Sustained Drug Delivery and Enhanced Viscoelasticity. AAPS PharmSciTech [Internet]. 2022;23(5). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-022-02280-2

- Raghu Kiran CVS, Gopinath C. Development and evaluation of interpenetrating polymer network based superporous hydrogel gastroretentive drug delivery systems (SPH IPN-GRDDS). Mater Today Proc [Internet]. 2020;46(xxxx):3056–61. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.02.381

- Sharma PK, Asthana GS, Asthana A. Hydrogel advancement: A new approach for gastroretentive drug delivery. Int J Pharm Clin Res. 2016;8(10):1418–22.

- Kumar A, Pandey M, Koshy MK, Saraf SA. Synthesis of fast swelling superporous hydrogel: effect of concentration of crosslinker and acdisol on swelling ratio and mechanical strength. Int J Drug Deliv. 2010 Jul 23;2(2):135–40.

- Yella S, Rao AS, Kalakonda S. Development and Evaluation of Superporous Hydrogel Tablets of Cefditoren Pivoxil as a Gastroretentive System. 2015;01(03):166–77.

- Mircioiu C, Voicu V, Anuta V, Tudose A, Celia C, Paolino D, et al. Mathematical modeling of release kinetics from supramolecular drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutics. 2019;11(3).

- Zahra Q, Minhas MU, Khan S, Wu PC, Suhail M, Iqbal R, et al. Fabrication of polyethylene glycol hydrogels with enhanced swelling; loading capacity and release kinetics. Polym Bull [Internet]. 2022 Jun 7 [cited 2022 Aug 9];79(7):5389–415. Available from: https://sci-hub.se/https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00289-021-03740-8

- Refai H, Osman D, Khalifa M, Elsalhy S. Trifluoperazine-Loaded Leciplexes as Potential Nasal Delivery Systems for treatment of depression. Azhar Int J Pharm Med Sci. 2022;2(2):70–82.

- Pereira ICS, dos Santos NRR, Middea A, Prudencio ER, Luchese RH, Moreira APD, et al. In vitro evaluation of PVA gels loaded with Copaiba Oil and Duotrill®. Polimeros. 2019;29(3):1–8.

- Dakhil IA, Mohamed MBM, Abbas AK, Mansour SM. Formulation and evaluation of trifluoperazine hcl as rectal suppositories by using different types of surfactants in cocoa butter. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019;12(10):4934–40.

- Jafari A, Hassanajili S, Ghaffari F, Azarpira N. Modulating the physico-mechanical properties of polyacrylamide/gelatin hydrogels for tissue engineering application. Polym Bull [Internet]. 2022;79(3):1821–42. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-021-03592-2

- Son KH, Lee JW. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) based thermo-responsive hydrogels for cell sheet engineering. Materials (Basel). 2016;9(10).

- Kaşgöz H, Aydin I, Kaşgöz A. The effect of PEG(400)DA crosslinking agent on swelling behaviour of acrylamide-maleic acid hydrogels. Polym Bull. 2005;54(6):387–97.

- Desu PK, Pasam V, Kotra V. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of superporous hydrogel based gastroretentive drug delivery system of vildagliptin. J Res Pharm. 2019;23(5):873–85.

- Gupta R, Tripathi P, Bhardwaj P, Mahor A. Recent advances in gastro retentive drug delivery systems and its application on treatment of H. Pylori infections. J Anal Pharm Res [Internet]. 2018 Jul 6 [cited 2022 Dec 28];Volume 7(Issue 4). Available from: https://medcraveonline.com/JAPLR/JAPLR-07-00258.php

- Jeleel HE, Jawad FJ. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Super Porous Hydrogel Composite of Baclofen. Int J Drug Deliv Technol. 2021;11(4):1372–8.

- Kumar A, Pandey M, Koshy MK, Saraf SA. Synthesis of fast swelling superporous hydrogel: effect of concentration of crosslinker and acdisol on swelling ratio and mechanical strength. Int J Drug Deliv. 2010 Jul 23;2(2):135–40.

- Omidian H, Park K, Rocca JG. Recent developments in superporous hydrogels. JPP [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2022 Dec 28];59:317–27. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jpp/article/59/3/317/6141597