• Mowafaq M. Ghareeb Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mariam S. Mohammed Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq



Nanoemulsion, Pseudoternary phase diagram, Isoconazole nitrate, Topical


This study aimed to make an o/w
nanoemulsion of isoconazole the drug
nitrate (ISN) for topical use. Low
aqueous solubility is a characteristic
feature of the imidazole antifungal ISN.
Therefore, ISN nanoemulsion would increase dispersibility and decreases skin resistance by
enhancing the drug penetration to the first layers of skin (stratum corneum). The work
included constructing the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams by using the aqueous titration
method. The prepared o/w nanoemulsions were composed of oil, Smix (a mixture of
surfactant and co-surfactant) and deionized water (DW). ISN nanoemulsions were subjected
to characterization studies to choose the best formula. According to the characterization
studies, the optimal formula, designated NE14 contains 1% ISN, 66% Smix ((1:3) tween60:
propylene glycol:ethanol), 7% oleic acid, and 27% deionized water was reached. Formula
NE14 is characterized by having a polydispersity index of (0.146), pH (5.76), droplet size
(84.6 nm), percent transmittance (98.8%), viscosity (80m Pa.s) and a high release of
isoconazole propably due low viscosity. The droplet size of NE14 (84.6nm) was also
confirmed by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) research. The improved formula (ISN
NE14) was found to be a promising nanoemulsion formula for enhancing the topical
bioavailability of ISN and thus could increase its efficacy for the treatment of topical fungal


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